The evolution of cities. Discussing Jeffrey West's book “Scale...” from the perspective of “The Economic Theory of Relativity”/“Innovation Snail”

Badulin N.A.

FiBr Innovation Management Company LLC, Moscow Region - Tomsk, Сell: +7-916-554-40-32, E-mail:

During the meetings of the Business Book Reading Club, participants of the CPSC (Complex Projects Strategy Club, see: [1]) attempted to study the approach of research author Geoffrey Brian West [2], who headed the Santa Fe Institute in 2005-2009, from different points of view:

1) using the method of fractal logic (V.V. Tarasenko, Ph.D. [3], M. M. Dubovikov, Ph.D.), used to study fractal topologies in various fields - from living organisms to the life cycle of organizations and cities.

2) using the resolution of TRIZ contradictions and the ontological method (V.A. Efimov, Ph.D., [4], S.A. Taktaev [5]), used in theories of managing network communities of people.

3) using the "Economic Theory of Relativity"/"Innovation Snail" (N.A. Badulin, Ph.D., abbreviated - ETR/IS, [6-9]), used to model the life cycle in living systems, in including to create a General theory of cities.

In this post, the third approach will be disclosed as a combination of all three approaches.

As a result of the work performed were:

• 12 different paradigms of urban development were identified, corresponding to the 12 stages of ETR/IS, formed at the moment and giving a complete system of urban settlements in human civilization: from the “City of the Hermit Sergius”, “Nile Desert”, “Izba Vlasov” and “Coral castle ”(stage 1) - up to the concepts of the information and digital “Moscow Smart City ”(stage 11) and“ Social Network City ”(“ City of the Sun ”by T. Campanella,“ EcoCity Masdar ”, stage 12).

• the urban models created during the evolution of human civilization are described, the paradigms of which are orthogonal in nature, and development methods are based on invariant topologies (reflected in various categories of law [7]), therefore, acting in the real economy, they contribute to the formation of wave processes in urban studies and give birth to cycles leading to crises of various types;

• Proposed mechanisms for predicting crises of various nature in urban development and developing measures to reduce losses from future crises.


Scale, Geoffrey Brian West, Santa Fe Institute, City Theory, Economic Theory of Relativity, Innovation Snail, Crisis, Sustainable Development, Innovation



2. Scale: universal laws of growth, innovation, sustainability and the pace of life of organisms, cities, economic systems and companies / Geoffrey Brian West, trans. from English D. Prokofiev. - Moscow: ABC Business, 2018 . - 511 p. - ISBN 978-5-389-07010-3

3. Fractal logic / Tarasenko VV, Ed. 5, rev. and add. - M .: URSS. - 2018 . - 200 s. - ISBN 978-5-9710-5552-5

4. Index of physical effects and phenomena for inventors and rationalizers. Denisov S., Efimov V., Zubarev V., Kustov V. - Obninsk, 1979.- 214 p.


6. Application of the "Economic Theory of Relativity" - "Innovation Snails" to the digitalization of the regional economy / Badulin N.A. // XXVI International Conference “Mathematics. Computing. Education.”, Pushchino, Russia, January 28 - February 2, 2019, Video report:

7. The evolution of law, property and money, or - What is blockchain? / Badulin N.A. // XXV International Conference “Mathematics. Computing. Education.”, Dubna, Russia, January 29 - February 3, 2018,

Photo report 01/30/2018:

8. Economic theory of relativity or “Innovation Snail” / Badulin N.A. // Triple Helix International Conference 2015, Beijing, 21-24th August 2015, THA Thematic Research Group Entrepreneurial Universities. (Verified on electronic resource: 10.30.2017, URL:

9. The "Innovation Snail", or the application of GACEBT theory to determine the stage of business development / Badulin N.A. // Strategic management. No. 1, 2011, S.44-61. URL:

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